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CISER Data Archive

Internet Data Sources for Social Scientists


Direct Access to Selected Datasets available on the Internet


American Communities Project
     Data to analyze racial and ethnic composition and segregation of metropolitan areas using 1990 and 2000 Census data . Links to a separate site, The State of Public School Segregation, with similar data at the metro and school district levels, with comparisons back to the 1970 Census. Site content is frequently updated and easy to use. Maintained by the Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, University at Albany.

American Community Survey
     Conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau to replace the decennial Census long form. When fully implemented, the ACSwill provide more current demographic, econmic, and housing characteristics for geographic levels comparable to the decennial Census. Tables and maps can be generated from the American Factfinder site http://factfinder.census.gov

Summary and public use microdata products are available, although it will be several years before tract and block group summary statistics are published. Statistics for areas with population over 65K were released in 2006, those with populations over 20K will be released in 2008.

American Factfinder
     A gateway or portal to several major US Census products: 1990 and 2000 decennial Census of population and housing; annual population estimates; 1997 and 2002 Economic Census; American Community Survey. Retrieve summary tables and maps for display and download, although American Factfinder features are more robust for recent data products than older ones.

American Housing Survey      bullet homepage for American Housing Survey   
          Conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau on behalf of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Consists of a biennial "core" survey based on a national sample and a metropolitan area survey covering about 20 large urban areas on a 4-year rotating basis.

      bullet HUD USER
          Provided by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Microdata, documentation, and publications for the most recent years (mid-1990s+) of the survey. CISER owns years back to the mid-1970s, as does ICPSR.

American National Election Study

      bullet ANES homepage
          View the most recent cumulative codebook, and data can be downloaded after registration. The authoritative site for information on dataset revisions and updates.

      bullet Computer-assisted Survey Methods Program
          Perform extracts and simple statistical analyses from the 2004, 2000, and 1948-2004 cumulative files. Hosted by University of California, Berkeley.

      bullet American Religion Data Archive
          Extract and download selected variables from the 2000-2004 surveys or produce onlline statistics for individual questions.

American Time Use Survey
     Household survey begun in 2003 on how Americans use of personal, work, and leisure time. Summary tables and microdata can be downloaded. Conducted by Census Bureau on behalf of Bureau of Labor Statistics. Site contains links to similar time use studies conducted in other countries.

You can also create custom extracts from the surveys via the ATUS Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X), a joint project of the Maryland and Minnesota population centers: http://www.atusdata.org

Basketball Reference
     NBA and ABA player stats back to the 1946/47 season. Filter by team, coach, years, player, position. Option to download it all as a zip file in comma-delimited format.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
     Prevalence of personal health behaviors and risk factors by state based on a survey of adults conducted from 1990+. Download data and documentation or create your own tables.

British Household Panel Survey
     A annual survey begun in 1991 that measures social and economic characteristics. Documentation and questionnaires are publicly available; access to datasets requires individual registration. The FAQ page addresses many common question related to sample composition and enrichment, data access requirements, and anticipated future waves.

Candidate Emergence Study
     A series of surveys in 1998, 2000, and 2002 to determine who does and does not choose to run for Congressional seats and competitiveness of races. Data and documentation freely available.

Census of Population and Housing

CensusScope
     Uses Census 2000 data to produce rankings, maps, and other spiffy graphical displays of demographic and social characteristics. Select by state, county, metro areas. Some trend information using previous decennial Censuses. Brought to you by the Social Science Data Analysis Network (SSDAN), University of Michigan.

Child Care and Early Education Research Connection
     Links to research datasets, statistics, and reports, with the goal of providing information to researchers and policy makers. Many links to state-level data sources. A collaboration of ICPSR, National Center for Children in Poverty, and the Department of Health and Human Services.

China Data Online
     Focus on economic and demographic summary statistics, much at the subnational level. Very little Census data is part of this subscription.

China Health and Nutrition Survey
     Measures affects of health, nutrition,and family planning practices on social and economic life in PRC. SAS transport files for 5 years. Data download requires registration with Carolina Population Center . Extensive documentation is freely available,

Comtrade
     Annual bilateral trade statisics by commodity and partner country. Most coverage back to 1962. Download custom extracts, create graphs. Powerful but not intuitive. Also known as UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database.

Consumer Expenditure Survey      bullet homepage for Consumer Expenditure Survey   
          Surveys the buying habits and expenditures of households. Conducted by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are collected by a quarterly interview survey and weekly diary survey (mutually exclusive samples). Many summary tables are produced (by year, limited geographic areas, household characteristics), and you can create custom tables on the site.

      bullet Family-Level Extracts
          Data at the consumer-unit level. A nicely massaged set of extracts back to 1980, produced by Congressional Budget Office staff and distributed by NBER.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)
     Compiled by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. A statistical measure of the average change in prices paid by urban consumers for goods and services, widely used as a meausre of inflation. The core CPI exludes food and energy categories.

Cornell National Social Survey (CNSS)
     Cornell National Social Survey (CNSS) is an omnibus survey initiated by the Office of the Senior Vice Provost. The objective of this initiative is to offer researchers at Cornell University an opportunity to collect survey data on a national random sample of 1000 adults in the continental United States. Data collected by Survey Research Institute (SRI) at Cornell and distributed by Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research (CISER).

Correlates of War data
     COW Project distributes several historical datasets coding international events back to the 1800s. Data include territorial changes, interstate alliances, and inter- and intrastate warfare. Many are more current versions of those distributed by ICPSR.

Country Indicators for Foreign Policy
     Collates economic, social, environmental, and military indicators for over 100 countries. Create dynamic maps or charts and download extracts. Registration not required. Use IE to use the fancier features. Most statistical series end with 2000.

County and City Data Books
     Create custom tables and extracts from the 1944-2000 data books. Despite the title, city and place geographies are also available, although with limited lists of variables. Tables can be displayed in your browser or downloaded in a spreadsheet-friendly format. Site provided by the Geospatial and Statistical Data Center, University of Virginia. A Census Bureau site has the 2007 edition with tables in Excel and PDF file formats at http://www.census.gov/statab/www/ccdb.html

County Business Patterns      bullet homepage for County Business Patterns   
          Download raw data files back to 1988 from this Census Bureau site. Older data files are available in the Data Archive and from ICPSR. Recent years can be viewed as tables online.

      bullet Geospatial & Statistical Data Center
          Produces custom extracts, by state, back to 1977.

      bullet National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS)
          Provides access to CBP back to 1970, organized in multi-year "chunks" in which each year uses the same SIC or NAICS version.

Current Population Survey      bullet homepage for Current Population Survey   
          Home page of the CPS, conducted by the Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

      bullet data downloads
          Download data and documentation for the basic survey (1998+), March supplement (1998+), and selected supplements from this Census site. Older CPS datasets are available in the Data Archive, from ICPSR, and from NBER.

      bullet National Bureau of Economic Research
          Downloads for basic monthly files (1976+), most supplements (March back to 1962), some matched research files, and documentation and many input programs (SAS, SPSS, Stata).

      bullet IPUMS-CPS
          Create extracts from a harmonized dataset containing over 40 years of March CPS data. Ideal for measuring many facets of household economic change. Superior documentation discusses comparability of variables over time. Service is free from the Minnesota Population Center but requires registration.

      bullet CPS Table Creator
          U.S. Census Bureau tool to generate slick tables from the March CPS (the Annual Social and Economic Supplement) but only back to 2003.

Demographic and Health Surveys
     A series of surveys conducted in over 60 counties in Asia, Africa, South and Central America, and the Middle East. Surveys measure family characteristics, health status, and household wealth. Distributed by Macro International. User registration and permission required.

Demographic Profile Generator
     A service of the Missouri Census Data Center.

      bullet 1990 Demographic Profile Generator
          Uses STF3 to generate tables for states, counties, cities/towns/places, tracts, ZIP codes, and (for some states) county subdivisions. See the instructions for obtaining block-group level profiles.

      bullet 2000 Census
          Similar tables generated from the SF3 files. Data can also be extracted in a variety of database and report formats using the site's data extractor.

Disability Statistics
     Up-to-date disability statistics and reports based on Census data (decennial population and housing, CPS, and ACS). Flexible search, extraction, and display features. Site supported by the Cornell University Employment and Disability Institute.

Diversitydata.org: Metropolitan Quality of Life Data
     Compiles indicators to define quality of life in U.S. metropolitan areas, with a focus on measures affecting diversity, economic opportunity, and social wellbeing, broken down by race/ethnicity. Much summary data are derived from decennial Censues, but other measures (for example, access to health insurance, characteristics of local school systems, residential sprawl, housing affordability) are derived from other government and private sources. Many variables limited to the largest metro areas, and there is no ability to extract and download tables. Maps feature is limited. Compiled under the aupices of the Harvard School of Public Health.

Economic Report of the President
     Links to reports since 1995. Statistical tables contain extensive macroeconomic historical data.

Family Life Surveys
     Household and community surveys for Malaysia, Indonesia, Guatemala, and Bangladesh. Distributed by RAND Corporation.

Federal Elections Project
     Results of the 2000 federal and state elections, including some ballot initiatives and referenda, down to the precinct level. Some geographies include registration and turnout statistics, matched with demographics from the 2000 Census. David Lublin and D. Stephen Voss, Principal Investigators. (Lublin maintains a site of replication datasets and links to the Southern Politics Project at http://www.american.edu/dlublin/research/data/data.html )

Federal Funds for Research and Development
     Support provided by federal agencies fiscal years 1951+ . Summary tables by agency and category of recipient in PDF and Excel formats.

Foreign Currency Exchange Rates
     Excellent historical series from the Federal Reserve Board. Daily spot exchange rate for over 20 countries, some back to 1971.

GenderStats
     Health, education, economic, and demographic indicators from national statisitcal agencies, UN, and World Bank sources. Select data for individual countries or use the Data Query System for multiple countries and indicators.

General Social Survey

      bullet National Opinion Research Center (NORC)
          Select, analyze, and extract variables from the most recent cumulative file using the Nesstar software product.

      bullet Computer-Assisted Survey Methods
          Extract a customized set from the morst recent cumulative file. You can also perform some simple statistical operations and download extracts using the site's seach and analysis software. Courtesy of University of California, Berkeley.

      bullet Association of Religion Data Archives
          Extract and download variables and questions from the GSS (1998-2004) or display online analysis tables.

Geoecology:
     Data on soils, water resources, land use, air quality, endangered species, etc, from 1964-1979 . Reflects environmental conditions existing in the 1970s. Register to download data from http://daac.ornl.gov

German Socio-Economic Panel      bullet Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University
          Distributes an English-language user package of the GSOEP, which requires a contract and fees.

German Socio-Economic Panel Study      bullet homepage for German Socio-Economic Panel Study   
          Only documentation is available from this German Institute of Economic Research site.

Global Market Information Database
     Demographic, econmic, environmental, and marketing data for over 200 countries, some variables at the sub-national level. Detailed income, expenditure, and lifestyle statistics. Annual historical data and forecasts.

Global Youth Tobacco Survey
     An international survey of youth aged 13-15 on tobacco use, availability, and attitudes. Jointly sponsored by CDC, WHO, UNICEF, and others. Documentation freely available, access to datasets requires registration with the site.

Health and Retirement Study (HRS)
     Begun in 1992, the HRS covers topics in health care, employment and retirement, attitudes and expectations, and family issues among persons aged 50 and over. A complementary study conducted in 1994 and 1996, Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), was absorbed into HRS in 1998. Registration required for public-use data downloads. A restricted version is available to qualified users.

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP))
     A suite of data products that measures hospital patient care, covering care quality, access, an outcomes, among other public policy topics. State- and national-level databases, compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Includes H-CPUnet, an online tool designed to generate statistics.

Historical Census Data Browser
     Generate tables for states and counties using data from 1790 to 1960. Limited mapping feature. Hosted by the Geospatial and Statistical Data Center, University of Virginia.

Historical statistics of the United States
     Vital statistics, economics and employment, government, from the earliest figures available to the present. Select tables for viewing, e-mail, or download in a variety of formats. Some features, such as creation of custom tables and saving data, require individual registration in addition to Cornell authentication.

Indiastat.com
     Demographic, economic, and social indicators for India. Much historical data, often at the sub-national level. Currentness and geographic coverage vary among categories and indicators.


     Choose up to six countries and create charts based on current statistics on demography, environment, health, economy from United Nations sources.

Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS)
     Primary source of information about higher education: institutional characteritics, staffing and enrollment, salaries, degree completions, finances. Create custom tables and extracts on one or many institutions . Data collected and disbtributed by the National Center for Education Statistics.

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS)
     Public use microdata from the decennial Censuses, provided by the Historical Census Project, University of Minnesota.

International Data Base
     Selected demographic statistics and projections for about 200 countries: birth and fertility rates, life expenctancy, migration, from the mid-1950s projected to 2025. Regularly updated to include newly independent states and the effects of HIV/AIDS prevalence in specific countries. Produced by the U.S. Census.

Kids Count Data Center
     Retrieve state and city profiles containing 100 meaures of child wellbeing (for example, poverty, infant motality, family status, household characteristics). A separate Community-Level Information for Kids (CLIKS) data feature compiles a large amount of state- and local-level data to produce community profiles on the educational, economic, and health environments important to the well-being of children. Right Start Online reports factors that affect newborn wellbeing in the nation's 50 largest cities. All brought to you by the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Labor Force Statistics
     Produced from the from the Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Legislative Roll Calls and related data

      bullet VoteWorld
          Coverage has expanded beyond the US Congress, European Parliament, and British Parliament parliamentary roll call data to include selected historical series from 18 other countries. VoteWorld has also been released in fancier versions, VoteWorld Online and Animations, which requrie Java Web Start. For other roll call datasets, select Links from the toolbar.

      bullet VoteView
          Roll call voting for the US Congress, usually more current than that provided by ICPSR study #4, as well as historical interest group ratings (1959-1981).

      bullet United Nations General Assembly
          Descriptions of resolutions and tallies of voting records from 1946 to 2005, updating data from ICPSR study #5512. Provided by Erik Voeten, George Washington University. Affinity of Nations Index is a related dataset developed by Erik Gartzke that measures similarity of voting patterns among nations: http://dss.ucsd.edu/~egartzke/

      bullet Australian Political Resources
          A series of files on election results (merged with Census data), party apportionment and limited roll call data for Austrailia. Compiled by Simon Jackman.

Linking Economic Development and Child Care: 50 State Database
     Compiles variables from a wide variety of data sources on child care at the state level. Addresses factors affecting availabilty and quality of child care.

Local Area Unemployment Statistics
     Monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment for states, metro- and micropolitan areas, counties, larger cities and towns. Data are frequently subject to revision.

Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
     A cooperative project of 25 countries, LIS is a database of household income studies that are normalized to facilitate cross-national research. Site also provides access to the Luxembourg Employment Study (LES), composed of labor force surveys.

Milwaukee Parental Choice Program
     Data generated from a program to provide subsidies to private schools as part of a general voucher program. Hosted by the Data and Program Library Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Free but registration required.

Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project
     Describes the state of ethnic minorities within a country, discriminatory practices within countries, and political responses to those practices back to 1945. Select one minority group/country for review or download the entire dataset for comparative research. (The MAR Project is developing a new dataset that will focus on organizations claiming to represent minority communities.) Associated with the Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland.

National Health Interview Survey
     Site provides data, documentation, questionnaires, input programs, and publications based on the survey for 10 years, including many supplements. Most of these and older years are available from ICPSR.

The Integrated Health Interview Series site contains a chart that provides information on the availability of NHIS variables;from this page http://www.ihis.us/ihis/ click on variables. The link for each variable name describes its context and comparability since the first survey in 1969.

National Longitudinal Surveys

      bullet NLS homepage
          Sponsored by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, its intent is to collect data on labor market experiences of individuals over time. However, the NLS datasets are used in a wide variety of research areas: the affects of life events, health status and behaviors, fertility, education, workforce experiences and expectations. Several data extraction and download options for all NLS cohorts (original cohort groups begun in 1968, NLSY79, NLSY79 Children/Young Adults, NLSY97).

      bullet NLS Database Investigator
          Software required to utilize NLS data if you download the entire dataset for a cohort. Requires Windows OS.

      bullet Web Investigator
          Create custom extracts from public use files from all cohorts and generate simple statistics for variables. Generate custom weights or save tag sets (variable selections) for later use. Requires that users create an account. Same data as the Data Investigator download and CD options, with the added benefit of working with the most up-to-date versions available.

National Long-Term Care Survey (NLTCS)
     Longitudinal survey that meaures Medicare services to enrollees, health care expenditures, and caregiving. Jointly funded by the National Institute on Aging and Center for Demogrpahic Studies at Duke University. Six waves of data beginning in 1982, and supplemental surveys on related topics are available. Download documentation from the site. Order public use data on CD. Restricted linked files (to vital statistics and Medicare service use) are available to qualified researchers.

National Survey of America's Families
     Three waves of an independently drawn samples from 13 states. Measures child- and adult-well being (adults under 65), with emphasis on low-income families. Public-use files and online analysis of a subset available after registering on the NSAF site hosted by the Urban Institute. Datasets for all three years (1997, 1999, 2002) can be downloaded from ICPSR, which also provides an online analysis and subsetting tool.

National Survey of Families and Households
     Life history data on family composition, marriage, child-rearing, and family interactions. Three waves, beginning in 1987 with over 9.600 respondents. Data and documention downloads are freely available. Custom extractions and simple statistics can be created created online.

New Immigrant Survey
     A panel survey of new legal immigrants to the U.S. First-round data collected in 2003 are due for release in late 2005. Data from a pilot survey have been released. Public use data can be downloaded from the site but require pre-registration.

Occupational Employment Statistics
     Links to national, state, and metropolitan area occuaptional and wage estimates for recent years. From BLS. Based on a semi-annual survey of nonfarm establishments, and does not include self-employed individuals.

Panel Study of Income Dynamics
     Download the raw data and documentation for all waves or use the Data Center browse and extract function to select variables.

Penn World Tables

      bullet Center for International Comparisons

Polity IV: Political Regime Characterisics and Transitions, 1800+
     Codification of regime characteristics, now expected to be updated annually. Users must register before downloading the dataset and user's guide. Contains links to sources of previous Polity datasets. CISER owns Polity I-III as codebook SIND-055.

Population and Housing Unit Estimates
     Annual national, state, and sub-state estimates, some with demgraphic characteristics. Files available for download in comma-delimited format. See also a web application supported by the Missouri Census Data Center for state- and county-level estimates beginning with 1990, which permits some download customization: http://mcdc.missouri.edu/websas/test/estimates_by_age.shtml

Population projections
     State-level projections of population by single year of age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. National projections also available for household and family structure.

Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project
     Features the U.S. Census Tract Poverty Data files, the percentage of persons living below the federal poverty level in each tract for the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses.

Public Use Microdata Samples
     CISER houses PUMS data from the decennial Census for 1960-2000 and selected research files from ealier Censuses.

      bullet U.S. Census Bureau
          Links to state file downloads from 1-percent and 5-percent PUMS from Census 2000 and information on data for earlier censuses on CD.

Record of American Democracy (ROAD), 1984-1990
     Election returns, party registrations at the precinct level for elections at the state house level above. Complemented by socioecomic and demographic variables from the 1990 Census. Gary King and Bradley Palmquist, principal investigators. See the Federal Elections Project site at American University for more recent data.

Rural America at a Glance
     Demographic and economic characteristics of rural areas in the U.S. represented in maps, charts, and tables. September 2003 edition, from the USDA Economic Research Service.

School District Demographics
     Extracts from 1990 and 2000 Census data in school district boundaries. Limited download capabilities.

Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT)
     Distributes data from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG), Survey of Earned Doctorates, and other surveys measuring characteristics of the American technical labor force. From the National Science Foundation.

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates
     Estimates on number of families and children living in poverty, median household incomes. Most estimates are available for states, counties, and school districts. Produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. Estimates are generally 3 years behind.

State and Local Area Personal Income
     State, county, and MSA personal income, including per capita income back to 1969. Produced by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

State Failure: Internal Wars and Failures of Governance
     Codes events in countries with populations of over 500,000 since 1955. Includes the following types of events: ethnic war, revolutionary war, adverse regime change, genocide/politicide.

State Health Facts
     State comparisons of health status, poverty, insurance coverage, topics in minority and women's health, HIV/AIDS, care costs, and Medicare/Medicade issues. Most data for the current year only. Most series can be downloaded as delimited ascii files.

State of the Cities Data Systems
     Compiles information on popualtion, housing, crime, housing, employment, economic activity for metro areas, central cities, and their suburbs. Most statistics from 1990+, Census tables back to 1970.

StatLib
     Use the Get Data link to access the extensive archive of datasets, most compiled to support research projects or texts in statistics. An idiosyncratic mix on everything from sports to anthropometry. Great source for stats class projects. Supported by the Statistics Department, Carnegie Mellon University.

Study of American Families, 1994

Survey of Consumer Finances
     Conducted every three years for the Federal Reserve Board . Measures wealth and income of American households.

Survey of Economic Expectations
     A national survey on how Americans view their short-term economic future. Conducted in 8 waves from 1994 to 1998. Data can be downloaded (registration required) in Stata and ascii formats. Codebook includes variable-level frequencies.

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)
     A longitudinal panel study conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau to measure income, participation in government programs. Follows changes in income within a household and events that influence economic participation, access to benefits, and social wellbeing. In addition to a "core" survey of income and labor participation questions , additional topical modules cover a wide range of topics such as child care, retirement savings, and utilization of health care services.

SIPP data constitute a rich source but can be complicated to use. The tutorial (linked from the homepage) provides an excellent introduction to the content and structure of the survey.

Surveys of Consumers
     Begun in 1946, the monthly surveys measure sentiment regarding personal financial well being and that of the country. The Surveys are also used to generate the Index of Consumer Expectations. Microdata from the most recent six months are embargoed. A University of Michigan site provides customized subsets and tables using the SDA utility: http://www.sca.isr.umich.edu/sda-public/ (ICPSR houses older years under the series title, Survey of Consumer Attitudes and Behavior.) Conducted by the Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, with support from Reuters http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/financial/financial_products/a-z/umichigan_surveys_of_consumers/ .

Uniform Crime Reports

      bullet Social Sciences Data Center

      bullet National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

Union Density Estimates by State, 1964-2005
     Annual estimates of public and private sector membership from 1973 to date based on the Current Population Survey. State and national data back to 1963 are based on the CPS and the Directory of National Unions and Employee Associations. Compiled by Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson.

Union Membership and Coverage Database
     Compiled from the Current Population Survey. National, state, and metro area estimates. Updated annually.

USA Counties      bullet homepage for USA Counties   
          Online access permits viewing one state/county/table at a time and comparison of the data for a table with other counties in a state.

Wage Determinations OnLine.gov
     Current hour wage and fringe benefits rates for federally funded construction projects. Search or browse by state and county.

Wisconsin Longitudinal Study
     A study of over 10,000 Wisconsin residents who graduated from high school in 1957, with two separate surveys of their sibliings and spouses. The newest wave of data was collected in in 2005, released in late 2006. Download complete datasets with programs or create a custom subset; both require user registration.

World Fertility Survey

World Income Inequality Database
     Indicators measuring inequality (including but not limited to Gini coefficients) in over 150 countries, including those with transitional and developing economies.

World Values Surveys
     Perform simple statistical functions on WVS data or extract and download varibles of your choice. Surveys from the four waves can also be downloaded from ICPSR Direct.